Swift String Character At Index

The Clojure conditional system is based around nil and false, with nil and false representing the values of logical falsity in conditional tests - anything else is logical truth. rangeOfString(s) ? true : false } needs to test again nil. text , var secondString = secondStringTextField. Another year passes and another set of changes to the Swift String API arrives. When a type isn't specified, Swift will create a String instance out of a string literal when creating a variable or constant, no matter the length. 0-dev) and click Run. If the substring is present in the string, it returns the index of its first occurrence, else it returns -1 indicating that the substring specified is not present in the string. Since Java String is backed by an array, their index is also zero-based, which means the first character resides at index zero and the last character is at index, length-1 , where length is the number of characters in the String. Tree patterns for strings [ edit ] In Mathematica, strings are represented as trees of root StringExpression and all the characters in order as children of the root. An array keeps track of multiple pieces of information in linear order, a one-dimensional list. import SQLite. Unicode character list - over 23,000 unicode characters. rangeOfString(s) ? true : false } needs to test again nil. Suppose you didn't know beforehand which characters were duplicates - this code would not find them. The String type bridges with the Objective-C class NSString and offers interoperability with C functions that works with strings. Learn more about anchors. Creating strings. substring(to: indexTo). Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Well, of course the above produces a buffer overflow, but you get the idea 😬 It is just super easy to call C functions even with Swift values, like String, or Array, etc. For example, if I change line 3 to this: String g = "Mumbai"; then your code would not find the two m's. Martin Balsam, a heavyset, baldish character actor whose talents earned him an Oscar, a Tony and roles in scores of films and plays and hundreds of television shows over more than half a century. el' - no local version-control tools needed. We'll code a function from scratch that extracts hashtags from a string. Convert string to double. hello guys, I apologize for the English but I'm Italian. Get the complete details on Unicode character U+2713 on FileFormat. * --> Matches with 0 or more instances of any character or set of. I wrote a Swift String Cheat Sheet last year to help me remember how to use one of the more complex API’s in the Swift standard library. Get quick answers for developing and debugging applications with Swift, Apple’s multi-paradigm programming language. 2 Playground and assumes you have at least Swift 4. String 是字符串类型,Character 是字符类型,一个或多个字符组成一个字符串。 String : Swift 语言中的 String 类型与经典 Cocoa 或 Cocoa Touch 框架中的 Foundation NSString 类型进行了无缝衔接,Swift 语言中的 String 类型实现了 NSString 的大部分属性和方法,字符串搜索、拷贝. Spontaneous Swift Sudoku Solving. Plus, bundle up for your next trip to the icy mountains with the whimsical Wendigo Woolies transmog. Here we use enumerated() on a string array. 2: Create new String S2 with length= len. Index from an index directly. I have XCode 8 and Swift 3, but I cant get to index specified character in a string. au/libero/WebopacOpenURL. say stripChars ( 'She was a soul stripper. Regular expressions are text matching patterns described with a formal syntax. e \(2,4,6,8\)) for every index i \( (1 \le i \le | S|)\). swift failing on Linux/ARM SR-5845 Multiple tests (16) failing on Linux/ARM SR-4726 Clang abort in Function Pass Manager on aarch64 SR-1412 Cannot compile Foundation on ARM SR-1287 Ubuntu 15. While standard string interpolation is useful in Swift, all the power of format specifiers aren't available using the interpolation syntax. It can be a string of Char, AnsiChar or WideChar characters. String doesn't have a random-access index, so you can't just go straight to the 3rd character. Swift - Characters - A character in Swift is a single character String literal, addressed by the data type Character. And: In Swift 4 usage of "characters" is deprecated, and we must call String() when returning a new substring from a function. ASCII was actually designed for use with teletypes and so the descriptions are somewhat obscure. Index) -> Character { get }. How To Find A Substring In Range of a Swift String. It's a format or style for entering numbers or strings into a Swift program. This is how you can extract number from string in Excel. Swift 4 puts strict checking which does not allow you to enter a wrong type in an array, even by mistake. Returns a new string in which all occurrences of a specified Unicode character or in the current string are replaced with another specified Unicode character or. Trim Trailing or Leading Blanks / Whitespace from a String. class String : Comparable, CharSequence (source) The String class represents character strings. Get the complete details on Unicode character U+00F7 on FileFormat. * --> Matches with 0 or more instances of any character or set of. Notice that the anchor is a test against the string to be fixed to see if there are any more bad characters. ) lives in two dimensions. Relationships. In this post, we'll explore a method to efficiently index long character strings where the search operation is moderately-to-highly selective. As a result encodedOffset returns an offset into the UTF-16 string: let swiftVersion = "Swift 4. The search begins at startIndex. Using Character Map, you can copy individual characters or a group of characters to the Clipboard and paste them into any program that can display them. Most PHP scripts produce output of some kind. It’s a total drag. This is a simple task with other languages. All of Swift's basic types (such as String, Int, Double, and Bool) are hashable by default, and can be used as set value types or dictionary key types. A new String object is created, representing the substring of this string that begins with the character at index k and ends with the character at index m-that is, the result of this. 文字列から文字や部分文字列を取り出す Swiftでは、文字列からひとつの文字や部分文字列(substring)を取り出したり、置き換えたりするに場合に、範囲の指定にインデックス(Index型:String. ) Splits a string into parts based on a single character delimiterChar. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. Since Strings are so prevalent in Swift and Cocoa/Foundation methods, you should just use that unless you have a specific need for a Character—otherwise. So by the end of this tutorial you should be able to get the first few characters from the start or the end of a string in either Swift 3 or 4. Swift 4 puts strict checking which does not allow you to enter a wrong type in an array, even by mistake. Classes, structures, and enumerations can define subscripts, which are shortcuts for accessing the member elements of a collection, list, or sequence. index(strTmp. The search begins at startIndex. Create a boolean function which takes in a string and tells whether it is a numeric string (floating point and negative numbers included) in the syntax the language uses for numeric literals or numbers converted from strings. You can also perform a conditional update on an existing item (insert a new attribute name-value pair if it doesn't exist, or replace an existing name-value pair if it has certain expected attribute values). Convert string to double. Two strings are distinct if on applying the following operations on one string the second string cannot be formed. iOS Application Development Lecture 3: Unit 2 Dr. Have a look at the proposal for other. Collection consumers Processing a string, or any Collection really, typically involves tracking and advancing a position (i. If a value (known as a raw value) is provided for each enumeration case, the value can be a string, a character, or a value of any integer or floating-point type. Since Strings are so prevalent in Swift and Cocoa/Foundation methods, you should just use that unless you have a specific need for a Character—otherwise. Strings in Swift 4 are an ordered collection of characters, such as "Hello, World!" and they are represented by the Swift 4 data type String, which in turn represents a collection of values of Character type. end: The terminating index of the substring. However, this method is not null-safe and if we use an empty string this is going to fail. The Swift Character data type is used to store a single character of rendered text such as a letter, numerical digit, punctuation mark or symbol. EndIndex: We terminate the loop when the index equals the endIndex. The following mitigating steps. forEach { digits += $0. substring() but it's not generic as i need to have the position of the characters which i don't have. We have also seen two methods for determining how many cells of an array hold useful information - storing a count in a separate variable, and marking the end of the data with a special. We’ll dive deeper into string handling and. For: Swift 3 does not support the C-style for loop syntax. Following the Java Example to get the index of nth occurrence of a substring. Check the lead and trail character to make sure it is indeed a " not something similar looking. How to declare and assign a character in Swift? You can assign value in Character type same as String using double quotes " "but it should contain only a single character inside the quotes " ". If you want to look for a character regardless of its case, you can make your entire string a single by using the UPPER or LOWER functions described below. Index, String. A few days ago, I started to learn LSTM RNN (Long Short Term Memory Recurrent Neural Networks), and I thought that it would be a good idea if I make a project using it. For: We next use a while-loop on the string's characters. The Product Advertising API returns up to ten items per search results page. The difference is the begin and end characters in the regex. Assigning to and from a string: A ShortString is a fixed 255 characters long. Info Unicode Character 'DIVISION SIGN' (U+00F7) Browser Test Page Outline (as SVG file) Fonts that support U+00F7. The InStrB function is used with byte data contained in a string. The latter has its own language for text processing and you can write awk scripts to perform complex processing, normally from files. Thus, for example, length() returns the number of characters in a string, and not the number of bytes used to represent those characters. To begin, we introduce a String that has 4 characters (cats). The default value is 1. Get's the character at a specific index in a string in swift - Get Character from StrIndexSwift. All of Swift's basic types (such as String, Int, Double, and Bool) are hashable by default, and can be used as set value types or dictionary key types. Then, you match a range of characters from A-Z before finally matching the end of the string ensuring that it is between one to 10 characters in length. So you cannot construct a String. Designed to coexist with Objective-C and to be more resilient against erroneous code, Swift was introduced in 2014 at Apple's developer conference WWDC. If you need to include more than one character you need to define it String instead of Character. Try to do the challenges before looking at the video. Accessing Characters Using Subscript Notation. Your issue is that you miss understood the syntax of strings, you did this: [code]'Text ' 'another text' ^~~^ [/code]As you can see here, To write strings, you can use single quotes or double quotes. Quite quickly the performance sensitive user may come up with the crazy idea to just use the C standard functions to process, for example, strings. String is a collection of characters. All of Swift's basic types (such as String, Int, Double, and Bool) are hashable by default, and can be used as set value types or dictionary key types. All of Swift’s basic types (such as String, Int, Double, and Bool) are hashable by default, and can be used as set value types or dictionary key types. To visualize this data, we need a multi-dimensional data structure, that is, a multi-dimensional. Returns the number of replacements made. Brendon Urie of Panic! At The Disco) available n. For a string made up of pieces, make sure there is a + between each pair. Given a string say s and k denotes the number of commas and the output should be like when you insert the comma in the string at different places and find the maximum number. See more at:. Loop through characters in string. The default value is 1. In this example, the code of 'A' is displayed, and then the character matching a user-defined code is displayed. When I first saw the Swift guard statement during Apple’s Platform State of the Union, I couldn’t quite understand why I would ever use it. Swift String and Character. Write a Swift program to remove a character at specified index of a given non-empty string. hello guys, I apologize for the English but I'm Italian. In iOS 6, Apple introduced NSAttributedString. Write a function that returns true if the two strings match. String format) This method reads in a record from a Fortran binary file. This is understandable because some applications expect them to do that, also when working with multiple byte characters. You can put, delete, or add attribute values. An undercover police officer, who was investigating a string of ATM robberies, turns up dead in a van with a bag of diamonds found inside his mutilated body. How to fix "Cannot convert value of type 'String' to expected argument type 'Binding '" How to convert a CGPoint in one UIView to another view using convert() About the Swift Knowledge Base. The C-shell has no string-manipulation tools. Swift 4 brings some much needed improvements and simplifications to String. ) lives in two dimensions. Recipe // Initialize the Array var str = "Hello World" // Loop through its individual characters str. The blog post covers new features of strings in ECMAScript 6 (ES6). When you counted all possible alphanumeric characters (A to Z, lower and upper case, numeric digits 0 to 9, special characters like "% * / ?" etc. Instead we mostly use the echo command and awk utility. If you need to include more than one character you need to define it String instead of Character. el' - no local version-control tools needed. Swift has become a powerful language for server-side development on macOS, Linux, and even Windows! Join the exciting server-side Swift revolution and learn how to master frameworks such as Vapor and Kitura to build production-ready websites and web APIs and deploy them to cloud-based platforms with ease. Loop through characters in string. Sherlock considers a string to be valid if all characters of the string appear the same number of times. Maximum consecutive repeating character in string Given a string, the task is to find maximum consecutive repeating character in string. Index) -> Character { get }. Swift String Character At Index. The String type bridges with the Objective-C class NSString and offers interoperability with C functions that works with strings. Custom DateTime Formatting. Swift is a programming language for iOS and OS X development created by Apple. On each iteration of the loop, we are checking if the current character is a blank character or not by using the 'isspace()' method. Using the lowercaseString property allows you to make the search case-insensitive. swift string index (7) I started learning Swift language and I am very curious What does it mean that string and character comparisons in Swift are not locale-sensitive? Does it mean that all the characters are stored in Swift like UTF-8 characters?. The contents of a String can be accessed in various ways, including as a collection of Character values. Parameters. A single character is useful when parsing text, one character at a time. This continual copying can lead to significant inefficiencies in Python programs. Get quick answers for developing and debugging applications with Swift, Apple’s multi-paradigm programming language. The next two patterns — middle initial and last name — follow the same logic. (With strings, the first character is at position 1). Swift is designed to work with Apple's Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks and the large body of existing Objective-C code written for Apple products. It is repeated to fill the desired length. To get n character of a String in Swift you simply use Index, same to get a substring. You will find the world's great literature here, with focus on older works for which U. The length of data should be at most 45. Often, some kind of separator is used to make the encoded data easier for human reading. It was renamed to includes() in bug 1102219 due to the following reason:. Replaces all word occurrences of a specified string in this instance with another specified string. Author: Sansom, C. Using the lowercaseString property allows you to make the search case-insensitive. A string can also be sliced using only one index. I recently got into nautilus scripts, and for the one I'm writing I'd need to extract a substrong from a filename. startIndex, 3). Swift strings are represented by the String type. In this post, we’ll explore a method to efficiently index long character strings where the search operation is moderately-to-highly selective. Using a step-by-step example in Java, this article provides a practical example of how to use test-driven development (TDD) to divide, test, and conquer larger problems when coding. Searching for a Character in Swift 1. For more information about primary keys, see Primary Key in the Amazon DynamoDB Developer Guide. She asked her brother Vinay Tendulkar to count the number of even numbered characters ( i. Swift - Subscripts - Accessing the element members of a collection, sequence and a list in Classes, Structures and Enumerations are carried out with the help of subscripts. let strTmp: String = arrayCircles[intX] let indexTo = strTmp. The following mitigating steps. SwiftScanner. Choose among free epub and Kindle eBooks, download them or read them online. Each character is first converted to a string and then you check if the corresponding string isn’t actually a number under the hood. NSStrings are still lazily bridged in to String without copying. Index 到底是什么类型,数值是多少,都只是实现的一部分。 刚开始时只需要知道 String. (3) c-string Inserts a copy of the string formed by the null-terminated character sequence (C-string) pointed by s. Sort string of characters using Stack; Sort groups of numbers and characters separately in a String; Rearrange the characters of the string such that no two adjacent characters are consecutive English alphabets; Permutation of a string with maximum number of characters greater than its adjacent characters. You'll love the slick user interface, extraordinary features and amazing performance. In addition, it provides a list of the words and characters that Oracle Text treats as reserved words and characters. 2 String Character Search. Swift 5 also introduces new capabilities. flags If specified, flags is a string that contains the flags to add, or if an object is supplied for the pattern, the flags string will replace any of that object's flags (and lastIndex will be reset to 0) (as of ES2015). Following is an example of switch statement in Swift programming with fallthrough − import Cocoa var index = 10 switch index { case 100 : println( "Value of index is 100") fallthrough case 10,15 : println( "Value of index is either 10 or 15") fallthrough case 5 : println( "Value of index is 5") default : println( "default case") }. Use the Visual Basic "Len" function to return the length of a string. For example, this joins array elements with a comma:. We cannot just increment it like an Int. Using the Replace method will replace all occurrences found. This method may be used to trim whitespace (as defined above) from the beginning and end of a string. abcd , cdef , efg , ijk , lmn. How do i find the index of the Array element having the string "Is" in the String Array ? If i am using a different string, then obviously the index will change. Index, which corresponds to the position of each Character in the string. Martin Balsam, a heavyset, baldish character actor whose talents earned him an Oscar, a Tony and roles in scores of films and plays and hundreds of television shows over more than half a century. - Check if string contains string - Check if string has prefix - Check if string has suffix - Check if string is empty - Compare 2 strings - Concatenate strings - Convert a string to Lowercase - Convert a string to Uppercase - Generate a Unique Identifier - Get substring from range - Get the length of a string - Loop through characters in string. func form Index (inout String. Recipe // Initialize the Array var str = "Hello World" // Loop through its individual characters str. 4 通常個別に生成せずに、String型のcharacters let bIndex = characters. length()-1 inclusive. Index, offset By : Int) Offsets the given index by the specified distance. index(strTmp. hello guys, I apologize for the English but I'm Italian. 字符串遍历方法2:每个 String 值都有一个关联的索引类型, String. This code example will traverse each and every index of the string and every index of the string. Below is the ASCII character table and this includes descriptions of the first 32 non-printing characters. CharacterはSwiftにおける「一文字」を表現する型ですが、後述するようにCharacterだけが文字の表現ではありません。 StringをCharacter以外のデータ列としてアクセスするメソッドもあります。. 转载注明原文:swift – 从任何UTF-16偏移量中,找到位于Character边界上的相应String. Each character is first converted to a string and then you check if the corresponding string isn’t actually a number under the hood. For clarification: A C string is simply a series of characters (a one-dimensional character array) that is null-terminated, whereas an NSString object is a complete object with class methods, instance methods, etc. import Foundation let letters = "zzzy" // Replace first three characters with a. More than one line may be passed at a time. Enumeration case values without associated values (as described in Enumerations ) are also hashable by default. Right String: Extract characters from the end of a string. I'm handling with String in swift. Trim Trailing or Leading Blanks / Whitespace from a String. Check the lead and trail character to make sure it is indeed a " not something similar looking. You use subscripts to set and retrieve values by index without needing separate methods for setting and retrieval. 字符串遍历方法2:每个 String 值都有一个关联的索引类型, String. Brendon Urie of Panic! At The Disco) available n. It's been reported that some websites using MooTools 1. In addition, nil is used as the. Index is actually just a type alias for CharacterView. The matchPattern may contain zero or more asterisk chars, each of which matches 0 or more of any character. You'll love the slick user interface, extraordinary features and amazing performance. In the above code snippet, we’re using Swift’s built-in startIndex, endIndex, and index method to access the string. Both experiences start May the 4th (known informally by many fans around the globe each year as “ Star Wars Day”) and will continue to be offered daily through June 15, 2014. She asked her brother Vinay Tendulkar to count the number of even numbered characters ( i. /*REXX program removes a list of characters from a string (the haystack). C Program to Count All Occurrence of a Character in a String Example 1. ItemSearch Description. Reviews are an important part of the Swift evolution process. When a type isn't specified, Swift will create a String instance out of a string literal when creating a variable or constant, no matter the length. It is built with the LLVM compiler included in Xcode 6+. Getting Characters by Index from a String or String Buffer You can get the character at a particular index within a string, string buffer, or string builder by invoking the charAt accessor method. Provides extranet privacy to clients making a range of tests and surveys available to their human resources departments. Designed to coexist with Objective-C and to be more resilient against erroneous code, Swift was introduced in 2014 at Apple’s developer conference WWDC. Searching for a Character in Swift 1. thieumao Jan 6th, 2017 73 Never Not a member of Pastebin yet? raw download clone embed report print Swift 10. Swift - Subscripts - Accessing the element members of a collection, sequence and a list in Classes, Structures and Enumerations are carried out with the help of subscripts. characters can't be indexed by an Int. The String Type in Swift. 82 KB @IBAction func triggerMaxSubstringEvent ( _ sender : UIButton ) { // вызывается по нажатию на кнопку if var firstString = firstStringTextField. The ending null character is considered part of the string. Another year passes and another set of changes to the Swift String API arrives. Python String index() - Python Standard Library. import Foundation let letters = "zzzy" // Replace first three characters with a. Bash Split String – Often when working with string literals or message streams, we come across a necessity to split a string into tokens using a delimiter. If you are a python beginner and want to start learning the python programming, then keep your close attention in this tutorial as I am going to share a Python program to remove the nth index character from a Non-Empty string. Index, String. html or possibly default. If the string contains multiple messages, only the first one will be parsed. Strings are implemented in various ways, depending on the programming language. substring(to: indexTo). As some of you may have the same question, I thought it's better to write a post to share the solution. This is the best place to expand your knowledge and get prepared for your next interview. String Format for DateTime [C#] This example shows how to format DateTime using String. Claudiu is our intern :). A string is an ordered collection of characters, such as "We Swift" or "eat, sleep, code, repeat!". How do i find the index of the Array element having the string "Is" in the String Array ? If i am using a different string, then obviously the index will change. A substring of this String object is compared to a substring of the argument other. Swift Guard Bouncer. Index: We use this func to increment the current index through the string. Because the old index protocols no longer exist, the only constraint on a range’s element type is now Comparable conformance. The character sequence that is searched for a pattern. Info Unicode Character 'DIVISION SIGN' (U+00F7) Browser Test Page Outline (as SVG file) Fonts that support U+00F7. flags If specified, flags is a string that contains the flags to add, or if an object is supplied for the pattern, the flags string will replace any of that object's flags (and lastIndex will be reset to 0) (as of ES2015). Extract Substring from the Beginning of a String. This is the best place to expand your knowledge and get prepared for your next interview. String Consumption Hi all, I just want to give a quick update on some directions discussed last year. In the REXX language, strip usually means to remove leading and/or trailing characters from a string (most often, blanks). Index - 代码日志 上一篇: azure-data-lake – USQL嵌套TVF和查询给出了可怕的结果 下一篇: python – 优化三和的解决方案. You can provide data to a function by sending parameters to it, and the function can give data back as result. The resulting string will have 10 chars in its padded form. Write a function that returns true if the two strings match. The problem is that I need to get the last two characters in the verb to be able to determine the verb group to which it belongs. Instead we mostly use the echo command and awk utility. You can use extra space to solve this: 1: len= length of the original String S1. end: The terminating index of the substring. The ItemSearch operation searches for items on Amazon. Author: Sansom, C. func form Index (inout String. The ending null character is considered part of the string. 字符串遍历方法2:每个 String 值都有一个关联的索引类型, String. unclosed string literal: String literals are enclosed in " characters. SQL contains string - In this blog, I wil explain how to check a specific word or character in a given statement in SQL Server, using CHARINDEX function or SQL Server and check if the string contains a specific substring with CHARINDEX function. Walking around as your favorite character, signing autographs, putting on shows, and. Tree patterns for strings [ edit ] In Mathematica, strings are represented as trees of root StringExpression and all the characters in order as children of the root. Alternation. This is the code:. Author: Sansom, C. iOS Swift Swift3. CkoCsv Swift 2 Reference Documentation The character that separates fields in a record. ios,string,swift,unicode,character. If you specify any attributes that are part of an index key, then the data types for those attributes must match those of the schema in the table's attribute definition. This ABI includes some significant changes, the primary one being that native Swift strings are stored as UTF-8 where they were previously stored either as ASCII or UTF-16 depending on their contents. Swift Programming from Scratch The Swift Sandbox is integrated, making the exercises interactive. If not, it returns False. In this post, we'll explore a method to efficiently index long character strings where the search operation is moderately-to-highly selective. You can loop through every character in a string by treating it as an array. The following are allowed wild card characters in first string. quycover Sep 10th, 2015 69 Never Not a member of Pastebin yet? String (a. Index 取下标(subscript)得到 Character,String. These are my notes on what I needed to change to update my Swift String Cheat Sheet for Swift 4. Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository’s web address. The code below does the following: Get the nth character from a String (1) Get the nth character from the End of a String (2) Get a Substring from a string from X position to Y position […]. Swift 4 puts strict checking which does not allow you to enter a wrong type in an array, even by mistake. If end is not included, or if the specified value exceeds the string length, it is assumed to be equal to the length of the string by default. Two of the most popular posts on this blog are the Structure Of A SWIFT Message, Explained and the Difference between a SWIFT ACK and SWIFT NACK. Index, String. So, if we have an array of names, your job is to find the index for a particular name. This is a simple task with other languages. Get's the character at a specific index in a string in swift - Get. The Split method requires a parameter containing a character array. \b also matches at the start and/or end of the string if the first and/or last characters in the string are word characters. In order to vote, comment or post rants, you need to confirm your email address. Given two strings where first string may contain wild card characters and second string is a normal string. Index, the index type used by String and its views, is an opaque value that essentially stores a byte offset from the beginning of the string. All formatting can be done also using DateTime. index (characters. They both return the transformed result. The character at this index is NOT included in the substring. Suppose you didn't know beforehand which characters were duplicates - this code would not find them. It has also changed over time as the Swift language and the standard library have developed. When a string is being created or displayed, its text must be enclosed within double quotation marks to indicate the beginning and end of the string. indexOf(String otherString) method in a iterative loop to find the index of nth occurrence of a substring. I'm working a problem that returns a string containing the character in str if the length of str is odd, or the two. The backslash (\) escape character typically provides two ways to include doublequotes inside a string literal, either by modifying the meaning of the doublequote character embedded in the string (\" becomes "), or by modifying the meaning of a sequence of characters including the hexadecimal value of a doublequote character (\x22 becomes "). The SWIFT OTD Libraries for 2008 include a Generic OTD used to route SWIFT messages. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: