Grpc Load Balancing

Kubernetes上でgRPCサービスを動かすことが多くなってきている.が適切にロードバランスをする,リクエストを落とさずサービスをデプロイするためにいくつか注意することがあるので簡単にまとめておく.. By default, the Proxy will automatically connect to all IPs returned by a DNS query for the name of the Authorize service. 1 to HTTP/2 proxy. SubchannelPicker does the actual load-balancing work. It provides functionalities that a LoadBalancer implementation would typically need. We need a proxy that supports load balancing on level 7. In this post it is explained how to load-balance gRPC services through classic HTTP1. Kubespray Sig Kubespray Sig. verboseResponses() in the server being accessed by specifying -Dcom. gRPC itself introduces a highly performant and heavily benchmarked web server, an IDL for generating client and server stubs, bidirectional streaming, thick client load balancing, status codes specific to microservices, deadlines and timeouts. grpc with parameters of type LoadBalancerProvider Modifier and Type. Configuration Options¶ General¶. Traefik can deal with multiple instances of your programs (with multiple load balancing capabilities), and use a services configuration to work out how to reach an actual program. gRPC Overview. For on-premise Satellites, span traffic is generally sent to a pool of Satellites behind a load balancer. L4 load balancer will load balance using tcp connections, but u need a load balance at request level so we would require a L7 load balancer. こんにちは、次世代システム研究室のN. On gRPC Load Balancing (itnext. Using these two components, gRPC enables applications to communicate over HTTP/2 tcp connection while sending data in binary encoded format. See Envoy’s load balancing documentation for more details. Istio simplifies configuration of service-level properties like circuit breakers, timeouts, and retries, and makes it easy to set up important tasks like A/B testing, canary rollouts, and staged rollouts with percentage-based traffic splits. x natively, but since HTTP/2 is a binary protocol, instead of plain text, they will need other plugins to achieve it. The client should only contain simple algorithms (e. This talk goes over the. Kubernetes has built in load balancing via its kube-proxy which works perfectly with HTTP/1. 0, a highly scalable open source universal RPC Framework. Tools like Istio, Linkerd and gRPC excel at managing service-to-service communication at massive scale. you would be requiring L7 load balancer. Of the load-balancing options that gRPC provides, you use proxy-based load balancing in this tutorial. GRPC can perform client based load balancing, and in most configurations is the best architecture. 0 nor gRPC directly. Do you want to learn about gRPC, and how can use NGINX to proxy, load balance, and route gRPC connections? Watch this video for a brief overview of gRPC and how to configure NGINX to proxy gRPC. The reason for this improvement in performance is a concept called multiplexing. For complex algorithms, the client should rely on a load balancer to provide load balancing configuration and the list of servers to which the client should send requests. Context - This is the request context and will be used primarily for timeouts. •How to use Protocol Buffers and gRPC to connect systems. gRPC uses the performance boosted HTTP/2 protocol. Cloud Load Balancing is a fully distributed, software defined, managed service. It allows for bidirectional streaming of data, detection of gRPC messages, and logging gRPC traffic. In this article, we've seen how to use Linkerd as a service mesh for gRPC requests, adding latency-aware load balancing, circuit breaking, and request-level routing to gRPC apps. We've been plagued by "transport is closing" errors with no obvious cause. Pluggability matters: Interceptors Name Resolvers Auth plugins d. This blog post outlines how we ultimately arrived at our decision to add Lyft’s feature rich Envoy proxy into our stack and how it fits into Bugsnag’s architecture. The git repository has all the code listings we will be discussing in this article in the subdirectory demo2. 5 Black,Skinhead Trojan Jamaican Rectangle Yellow And Green Enamel Pin Badge - Gold. Write protobuf messages & GRPC calls from the command line without the proto files Latest release 1. This kernel module is enabled on each VM during installation. freee ではプロダクトの拡大に合わせて、汎用的な機能をマイクロサービスに切り出していこうとしています。. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Email (required) (Address never made public). Some applications require stickiness between a client and a server: it means all the requests from a client must be sent to the same server. QUIC is a transport layer protocol that provides congestion control similar to TCP and security equivalent to SSL/TLS for HTTP/2, with improved performance. Using cloud LB is one of the affordable ways to enjoy full features without investing in a hardware appliance. Cloud Load Balancing is a fully distributed, software defined, managed service. gRPC load balancing and Service Mesh - Vishal Powar, Google Service mesh architecture proposes a unique approach for control plane management (including load balancing). Helper is implemented by gRPC library and provided to Factory. Layered design to enable extension eg. x natively, but since HTTP/2 is a binary protocol, instead of plain text, they will need other plugins to achieve it. This talk goes over the. Introduction. NGINX: HTTP/2 Server Push and gRPC 1. With pluggable support for load balancing, tracing, health checking and authentication, it can efficiently connect services in and across data centers. Middle Proxy. API Gateway provides a tiered pricing model for API requests. Nick Ramirez | Jan 16, 2019 | LOAD BALANCING / ROUTING, MICROSERVICES, PERFORMANCE, TECH. Generate the gRPC code from the. 02 cm x 137. Returns the load-balancing policy name associated with this provider, which makes it selectable via LoadBalancerRegistry. Instead, a server-side proxy is used to translate between gRPC-Web requests and gRPC HTTP/2 responses. I thought to myself: How can this be? Load balancing is one of the core concepts required for building reliable distributed systems. Dial method, instructing the grpc to use balancing scheme of round-robin. In this DigitalOcean article, we are going to see set up Apache on Ubuntu 13 and use it as a reverse-proxy to welcome incoming connections and redirect them to application server(s) running on the same network. Use HAProxy to route, secure, and observe gRPC traffic over HTTP/2. If our gRPC client is sufficiently advanced, it can automatically maintain the load balancing pool from those DNS entries. About Load Balancing. Resource management attaches external resources such as storage to containers. gRPC Principles & Requirements Pluggable Large distributed systems need security, health-checking, load-balancing and failover, monitoring, tracing, logging, and so on. 1, HTTP/2, gRPC, TCP with or without TLS HTTP/1. This is library vs. Deploy the example:. We need a proxy that supports load balancing on level 7. Load balancing refers to efficiently distributing incoming network traffic across a group of backend servers, also known as a server farm or server pool. load balancing Load balancing is a technique used to distribute workloads uniformly across servers or other compute resources to optimize See complete definition NetOps NetOps, also referred to as NetOps 2. An Ingress controller is bootstrapped with some load balancing policy settings that it applies to all Ingress, such as the load balancing algorithm, backend weight scheme, and others. Helper is implemented by gRPC library and provided to Factory. For example, here's what happens when you take a simple gRPC Node. Learn how to configure caching, load balancing, cloud deployments, and other critical NGINX features. gRPC Load Balancing Example in Kubernetes L4 Load Balancing. The reason for this improvement in performance is a concept called multiplexing. You pay for what you use. It is a transparent HTTP/1. Configure HTTP/2 and GRPC You can configure HTTP/2 by configuring proto or, alpn under rules. Tracing gRPC with Istio. What’s missing is the element Microsoft called marshaling : an overseer of operations upon which the success of the interaction solely depends. tt/2FnAe2F Submitted January 11, 2018 at 01:14AM by wordofchristian via reddit http://ift. Performance and Standards matter: HTTP/2 c. There's not enough time to go into detail, but one thing to note: The fact that you're establishing a single persistent connection means that every request you make goes to the same server. I did work a fair amount on gRPC with GKE (example at. Let’s explore the two main components needed for the gRPC client-side load balancing to work; the name resolver and the load balancing policy. authentication, load balancing, logging and monitoring etc. Load-balancing is a must for everyone building scalable services, but every application's needs are different. gRPC is a modern open source high performance RPC framework that can run in any environment. For professionals who understand modern web architectures, such as n-tier or microservice designs, and common web protocols, including TCP and HTTP, these recipes provide proven solutions for security, software load balancing, and monitoring and maintaining NGINX’s application delivery platform. With industry-leading AI tuned for your customers and a dynamic data scientist team, NextSmarty has grown ecommerce revenue up to 50%. Moreover, Ambassador is able to provide this functionality for both your HTTP and gRPC services. Configure HTTP/2 and GRPC You can configure HTTP/2 by configuring proto or, alpn under rules. But the service issues all data access calls on behalf of the user requesting the data. StreamDesc - Represents a streaming RPC service's method specification. The service engine supports http, TCP, WS,Grpc, Mqtt, UDP, and DNS protocols. NET Core clarified the direction of Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) Services. It efficiently connects services in and across data centers with pluggable support for load balancing. - The gRPC protocol is built on top of http2 - a protocol designed to overcome many of the shortcomings in http, primarily performance. Equipped with the basics I set out to get a setup working with the focus on UX and ease of use. supports ETCD,consul and zookeeper as registry. However, the actual load balancing performance will likely be much worse, especially if clients are using long-lived persistent connections without any sort of client-side load balancing logic (like opening multiple connections and using some scheme, like round-robin, to fan out requests to those connections). Then Nginx takes care of the rest. Interlock-proxy: This is a proxy/load-balancing service that handles requests for the upstream application. Write protobuf messages & GRPC calls from the command line without the proto files Latest release 1. Makes outgoing connections to a gRPC server originate from the specified local IP address with an optional port. The reason for this improvement in performance is a concept called multiplexing. Continue reading “Using a Kotlin-based gRPC API with Envoy proxy for server-side load balancing”. Writing a client. Why does gRPC need special load balancing? because gRPC is built on HTTP/2, and HTTP/2 is designed to have a single long-lived TCP connection, it reduces the overhead of connection management; Connection balancing doesn't work well -> Once the connection is established, there's no more balancing to be done. Prerequisites. nginx is the canonical modern web server. (See TCP Proxying and Protocol Detection for details of how this detection happens). gRPC Load Balancing in 60 seconds. gRPC is based on many years of Google’s experience in building distributed systems – it is designed to be low latency, bandwidth and CPU efficient, to create massively distributed systems that span data centers, as well as power mobile apps, real-time communications, IoT devices and APIs. When the gRPC server handles a request, it looks up the hostname and adds it as a response header called. For Load balancing between grpc server, kubernates default load balancing wont help as it is a L4 load balancer. Dynamic DNS resolution and round-robin load balancing. Load balancing is the process of efficiently distributing network traffic among multiple backend services, and is a critical strategy for maximizing scalability and availability. The LoadBalancer is responsible for closing unused OOB channels, and closing all OOB channels within LoadBalancer. As far as I know, it's about the (HTTP2) traffic of the application themselves, not for the health check; and even if it were, you cannot possibly use this for gRPC as any response returns 200 OK and does not inspect/parse the protobuf output. The reason for this improvement in performance is a concept called multiplexing. A L4 load balancer attempting to load balance HTTP/2 traffic will open a single TCP connection and route all successive traffic to that same long-lived connection, which effectively cancels out the load balancing. you would be requiring L7 load balancer. You could use nginx as a TCP load balancer (layer 4), instead of HTTP (layer 7). generator-jhipster-grpc. gRPC Load Balancing June 15, 2017. (See TCP Proxying and Protocol Detection for details of how this detection happens). See the GRPC documentation for examples of other load balancing methodologies. The rank by country is calculated using a combination of average daily visitors to this site and pageviews on this site from users from that country over the past month. The selector is leveraged by the Client when making requests. Factory creates a new LoadBalancer instance. go at master · grpc/grpc-go // EnforcementPolicy is used to set keepalive enforcement policy on the server-side. With pluggable support for load balancing, tracing, health checking and authentication, it can efficiently connect services in and across data centers. The client should only contain simple algorithms (ie Round Robin) for server selection. It was brought to my attention recently that there is a dearth of introductory educational material available about modern network load balancing and proxying. Overview of the top 50 DevOps tools of this year. A large scale gRPC deployment typically has a number of identical back-end instances, and a number of clients. sidecar tradeoff. Some applications require stickiness between a client and a server: it means all the requests from a client must be sent to the same server. Proxy sitting between client and backend endpoint. Returns the load-balancing policy name associated with this provider, which makes it selectable via LoadBalancerRegistry. according to the need. Protoc Plugin for TypeScript. Traefik (pronounced traffic) is a modern HTTP reverse proxy and load balancer that makes deploying microservices easy. go implementation for more. This chapter will detail how to deploy an ASP. tt/2DhuSW9. A Kubernetes Service Mesh (Part 9): gRPC for Fun and Profit Learn how to use Linkerd with gRPC, opening new doors for load balancing, service discovery, circuit breaking, and tracing logic. NOMAD Windows and macOS servers) Running ESP Locally or on Another Platform HTTP/1. Background: gRPC is a modern open source high performance RPC framework that can run in any environment. Nginx recent release finally has native support for gRPC. Register registers the balancer builder to the balancer map. gRPC uses the performance boosted HTTP/2 protocol. by Kristopher Sandoval - June 20, 2017. Building Up Our Second Async Microservice. What are the types of bonding available. What i'm looking for here are some thoughts and/or guidance on a recommended approach and intended goal. Side Car Proxy. Envoy can proxy the. 09/02/2019; 2 minutes to read; In this article. The LB server will monitor the health of endpoints and use this and other factors to manage the list provided to clients. NGINX: HTTP/2 Server Push and gRPC 1. It seems that the grpc_pass directive is newly implemented so that it can perform reverse proxy for grpc: // and grpcs: // backend. Here you can learn about key gRPC concepts, find quick starts, reference material, and tutorials for all our supported languages, and more. In the previous posts in our service mesh series, we talked about how we’ve set up our service mesh infrastructure to modernize our microservice and load balancing architecture, and how we ensure the service mesh infrastructure is highly available so we can use all of its great features at all times with no interruptions. Hash, random, polling, Fair Polling as a load balancing algorithm, built-in service governance to ensure reliable RPC communication, the engine contains Diagnostic, link tracking for protocol and. getProvider(java. I thought to myself: How can this be? Load balancing is one of the core concepts required for building reliable distributed systems. It offers libraries in most widely used languages (Java, Node. Istio’s traffic routing rules let you easily control the flow of traffic and API calls between services. Layer 7 load balancing enables the load balancer to make smarter load‑balancing decisions, and to apply optimizations and changes to the content (such as. To learn more, watch our on-demand webinar, NGINX: HTTP/2 Server Push and gRPC. It is a transparent HTTP/1. Load balancing is done by maintaining multiple connections to all upstreams. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Email (required) (Address never made public). For HTTP and gRPC apps, Linkerd automatically enables load balancing, tracing, Prometheus metrics and mTLS with zero configuration. gRPC Load Balancing June 15, 2017. Some applications require stickiness between a client and a server: it means all the requests from a client must be sent to the same server. Load balancing gRPC. gRPC uses HTTP/2 with a persistent connection and multiplexing for better performance compared to services based on REST over HTTP 1. org as the SNI hostname during the TLS handshake, the load balancer serves cert-2. Tracing gRPC with Istio. 51 per million requests at the highest tier, you can decrease your costs based on the number of API requests you make per region across your AWS accounts. To solve this, we set up Linkerd following this tutorial: gRPC Load Balancing on Kubernetes without Tears. gRPC - high-performance universal RPC framework gRPC is a modern RPC framework that can run in any environment. With the release of HAProxy 1. gRPC is on its way to becoming the lingua franca for communication between cloud-native microservices. I did try the simple solution of setting up the "classic load balancer" and then having a listener for TCP on the gRPC port, but when I try to connect to the port it says "Connection refused", which makes me think the LB isn't working (opening that port) but everything says it is and it properly LB's the REST requests. gRPC is a modern open source high performance RPC framework that can run in any environment. It supports serving static content, HTTP L7 reverse proxy load balancing, HTTP/2, and many other features. You’ll have Linkerd running on your service in no time, and should see proper gRPC balancing immediately. gRPC Plugins and Tyk. Traefik gRPC Load Balancing and Traces Propagation Deploying a website with Caddy, Git and Kubernetes See Also. I currently have a microservice application written in GO and using GRPC for all service to service communication. There's not enough time to go into detail, but one thing to note: The fact that you're establishing a single persistent connection means that every request you make goes to the same server. Modern high‑traffic websites must serve hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of concurrent requests from users or clients and return the correct text, images, video, or application data, all in a fast and reliable manner. If the Builder implements ConfigParser, ParseConfig will be called when new service configs are received by the resolver, and the result will be provided to the Balancer in UpdateClientConnState. gRPC version 1. Dynamic DNS resolution and round-robin load balancing. Yes, it can be argued that a lot of the same can be accomplished via REST but we're comparing apples and oranges there. 0, considering it stable and ready for production. This is called only when the class is loaded. NET Core clarified the direction of Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) Services. com) #performance #web #load-balancing. Istio simplifies configuration of service-level properties like circuit breakers, timeouts, and retries, and makes it easy to set up important tasks like A/B testing, canary rollouts, and staged rollouts with percentage-based traffic splits. Service meshes only apply to traffic within a cluster. Every commit is checked that it passes the gRPC interop test cases against the grpc-go implementation. Register registers the balancer builder to the balancer map. Inference systems can be configured and deployed in a scalable manner. gRPC is a modern open source high performance RPC framework that can run in any environment. io I noticed it mentions Load balancing as one of its design principles or Goals. This characteristic is especially valuable for the fact that telemetry data collectors normally reside on a large variety of platforms. a load-balancer), it will try to reach the address of the other. Turns out, it's very close to possible for unary request / response gRPC calls. With this new functionality NGINX Plus can SSL‑terminate, route, and load balance gRPC traffic to your backend servers. Application load balancing becomes more adaptable and intelligent. Load Balancing in gRPC for Frontend Backend Communication Part:1 Oct 2 nd , 2017 11:51 pm | Comments We needed a strategy for load balancing incoming requests from our user-facing applications (android and ios) for communication in gRPC. All of the previous items are the responsibility of the service mesh data plane. gRPC load balancing with Nginx. Advanced load balancing and direct connection between nodes. Let’s explore the two main components needed for the gRPC client-side load balancing to work; the name resolver and the load balancing policy. Creating Nginx Certificate. gRPC was initially. Metadata: lets the client provide information associated with the call to the server and vice versa. Configure Health Checks for Your Classic Load Balancer. gRPC load balancing with Nginx. Layer 7 load balancing enables the load balancer to make smarter load‑balancing decisions, and to apply optimizations and changes to the content (such as. After you get up to date as to what is gRPC on. For external clients, see the next chapter, Load Balancing. This kernel module is enabled on each VM during installation. It supports serving static content, HTTP L7 reverse proxy load balancing, HTTP/2, and many other features. Building Up Our Second Async Microservice. We'll be using plain text without any encryption:. The reasons for choosing a strategy is mentioned here. NET, Java, Node. こんにちは、次世代システム研究室のN. GRPC is load balanced in many different ways and it’s very important to assess which is the most relevant for your environment as proxy load balancing may not be the most appropriate. The config is from the LoadBalancerProvider. For example, here's what happens when you take a simple gRPC Node. See the GRPC documentation for examples of other load balancing methodologies. Join our Slack channel in #ambassador-dev to get started. After you get up to date as to what is gRPC on. ITNEXT is a platform for IT developers & software engineers to share knowledge, connect, collaborate, learn and experience next-gen technologies. Posted by Anuraj on Tuesday, June 28, 2016 Reading time :2 minutes. NET client. If multiple addresses are resolved for the target, the first working address will be used. This is the king of the ingresses when it comes to load balancing algorithms. gRPC Load Balancing Example in Kubernetes L4 Load Balancing. Layer 7 load balancing enables the load balancer to make smarter load‑balancing decisions, and to apply optimizations and changes to the content (such as. Modern high‑traffic websites must serve hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of concurrent requests from users or clients and return the correct text, images, video, or application data, all in a fast and reliable manner. In Kubernetes, there are a variety of choices for load balancing external traffic to pods, each with different tradeoffs. Your Classic Load Balancer periodically sends requests to its registered instances to test their status. Cross platform matters b. The distributed software load balancers and the backend applications can scale up or down in response to real-time traffic monitoring. Istio simplifies configuration of service-level properties like circuit breakers, timeouts, and retries, and makes it easy to set up important tasks like A/B testing, canary rollouts, and staged rollouts with percentage-based traffic splits. $ # Generate a private key $ openssl genrsa -out server. It can efficiently connect services in and across data centers with pluggable support for load balancing, tracing, health checking. The workflow to create a gRPC service is simple: Create the service definition and payload structure in the Protocol Buffer (. About DevCentral. Configure Health Checks for Your Classic Load Balancer. At the very least a wallet password must be provided. The out-of-band channel doesn't have load-balancing. Background: gRPC is a modern open source high performance RPC framework that can run in any environment. Load balancing gRPC. Envoy supports all of the HTTP/2 features required to be used as the routing and load balancing substrate for GRPC requests and responses. gRPC is an increasingly common choice for application developers. Load balancing (LB) is normally performed by the client, which chooses the server for a given request from a list provided by a Load Balancing server. Istio's traffic routing rules let you easily control the flow of traffic and API calls between services. It supports serving static content, HTTP L7 reverse proxy load balancing, HTTP/2, and many other features. Cloud Load Balancing is a fully distributed, software-defined, managed service for all your traffic. Additional use cases 2. 8, back in 2017, which brought features including Hitless Reloads, DNS Service Discovery, Dynamic Scaling with the Runtime API, and HTTP/2. In the tutorial, you deploy a Kubernetes Service of TYPE=LoadBalancer, which is exposed as transport layer (layer 4) Network Load Balancing on GCP. Client Libraries for connecting polyglot systems gRPC generates client libraries in 10 languages and thus allows developers to operate in their language of choice and system to communicate with any other system. Similar to the homegrown RPC framework, it exposes an API to generate stubs, integrate with the existing service discovery system, etc. If our gRPC client is sufficiently advanced, it can automatically maintain the load balancing pool from those DNS entries. There is also an application-layer load balancing function built-in, as well as integrated with. It’s also the best choice for load balancing TCP connections. 0 is the first general availability (GA) release of gRPC and can be considered ready for production deployments. This characteristic is especially valuable for the fact that telemetry data collectors normally reside on a large variety of platforms. Benefits of Layer 7 Load Balancing. It seems that the grpc_pass directive is newly implemented so that it can perform reverse proxy for grpc: // and grpcs: // backend. Building Up Our Second Async Microservice. You can then scale your gRPC‑based service when you need additional capacity. gRPC: A high performance, open-source universal RPC framework. Cloud Load Balancing is a fully distributed, software defined, managed service. The reason is that gRPC, which is a common interface for inference requests, utilizes HTTP2 protocol, where every request is a stream inside the same TCP. Download the Complete NGINX Cookbook. HTTP/2 - A load balancing headache. It is a transparent HTTP/1. If the Builder implements ConfigParser, ParseConfig will be called when new service configs are received by the resolver, and the result will be provided to the Balancer in UpdateClientConnState. persistent sessions, dynamic weights) are not yet exposed through the Ingress. js microservices app and deploy it on Kubernetes:. We are using the support offered by gRPC in order to achieve our load balancing goals. Kubernetes has built in load balancing via its kube-proxy which works perfectly with HTTP/1. You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "grpc. The astute reader notice my two changes, the first is the line grpc. Generate the gRPC code from the. Of course, you can use grpc_pass grpcs://upstreams if your upstreams are listening on TLS. That being said, it’s also often. Why L7? grpc uses http2 where connections are persistent and request will be sent through same connection. It can efficiently connect services in and across data centers with pluggable support for load balancing, tracing, health checking and authentication. The service engine supports http, TCP, WS,Grpc, Mqtt, UDP, and DNS protocols. com 12/11/2018 Tutoriale Linux No comments Many new gRPC users are surprised to find that Kubernetes’s default load balancing often doesn’t work out of the box with gRPC. Middle proxy rout request into the worker node. If multiple addresses are resolved for the target, the first working address will be used. Dynamic Port Allocation. io I noticed it mentions Load balancing as one of its design principles or Goals. This process greatly helps in avoiding the scenario where a particular server becomes overloaded due to a sudden spike in requests. According to official blog “GRPC is a open source high performance RPC framework that can run in any environment, it can efficiently connect services across data centers with support of load balancing, tracing and authentication. Linkerd can proxy all TCP connections, and will automatically enable advanced features (including metrics, load balancing, retries, and more) for HTTP, HTTP/2, and gRPC connections. There are three general-purpose service mesh implementations currently available for use with Kubernetes: Istio, Linkerd, and Consul Connect. However, Kubernetes might not distribute the compute load in an optimal way. gRPC is a remote procedure call framework developed at Google. Posted on 2017-06-30. gRPC Load Balancing on Kubernetes examples A collection of simple examples showing how to setup load balancing scenarios for gRPC services deployed on Kubernetes. In reality, the client calls the gRPC functions (which works well) but when I look at the logs I see that all calls going to the same server pod. authentication, load balancing, logging and monitoring etc. Unfortunately, it seems that the Google Cloud Load Balancer (GCLB) doesn't support neither health-checking nor (after hacking a HTTP1. gRPC-Java works with JDK 6. Our meetup session about gRPC talks a bit about using this pattern for proxy load balancing. gRPC load balancing on Kubernetes with Linkerd. Grouping (Load Balancing) KubeMQ supports grouping receivers with the same subscription channel patterns to form a load balancing group. grpc-go/keepalive. Applications today are diverse and complex, and they present new load-balancing challenges. The ReplacePath middleware will: replace the actual path by the specified one. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: