Express Backend Cors

I was developing an AngularJS application with Node. JS + Express. to avoid CORS issues. Once we are done with this create a file named index. js package for providing a Connect/Express middleware that can be used to enable CORS with various options. Setting up the backend. Axios: it is a Promise-based HTTP client used to communicate with the Node server. So then I try the "Easy" step of adding the express API proxy, but it doesn't work. This, however, leaves you with a very superficial understanding of how the Cross-Origin Resource Sharing mechanism works. js Express App. El paquete cors de NPM, pretende solucionar muchos de los problemas que se presentan a la hora de utilizar dominios cruzados en nuestras aplicaciones. You’re starting out with a new project and for now are only developing locally on your machine. CORS is a W3C Recommendation, supported by all modern browsers, that involves a set of procedures and HTTP headers that together allow a browser to access data (notably Ajax requests) from a site other than the one from which the current page was served. In your angular application you then don't need to care about the url of your backend and you can then always do a request to a url like /api/some-express-route. js CRUD Example Tutorial From Scratch. Every few seconds, the frontend is querying the backend for updates. Here is a ‘minimal’ setup for a node. In order to accomplish this goal, we will build a notification system from scratch in two parts, first we will implement a GraphQL NodeJS express server, then a web application with React. js, GraphQL and Pusher. We will lay the basic foundation for what the backend layer is all about - from the entry point of the REST API to the database. I want to pass the csrftoken from node. If you develop hybrid apps based on the Apache Cordova framework, you can use the client SDK that provides for Cordova. It is a front-end dev’s problem that can only be fixed by a backend dev The Same Origin Policy is only enforced by the browsers (front-end) CORS has to be enabled by on the server (back-end). Solutions for CORS Errors A. Here is a sample: Note: two requests with the same host but not the same port aren't considered to be on the same domain. What do you think?. Then, run npm i -S express http-errors mongoose superagent body-parser cors dotenv. js as your backend. js using the node package manager (npm). In this tutorial I will walk through setting up Express + Node. Create server. it would give a cors origin blocked error,. What are the cons and the pro for handling CORS in infrastructure or application ? I mean is it better to setup CORS on my nginx/apache/tomcat ? or to handle it by coding in my application ? I have three API REST running with their own language (java spring, express and php) behind a nginx reverse proxy. cd backend npm install --save cors npm install --save express-fileupload npm install -g nodemon nodemon app. js tanto no back-end quanto no front-end. In this tutorial, you will be developing a simple Angular single page app with a REST backend, based on Node and Express. js Server During Web App Development. Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) allows AJAX requests to skip the Same-origin policy and access resources from remote hosts. add the proper CORS headers - This is definitely a must in case when you design a generic API where you don't even know the consumer. A video version of this tutorial can be seen below. 9 phonebook backend step9. json file for Node/Express server. It uses progressive JavaScript, is built with TypeScript and combines elements of OOP (Object Oriented Progamming), FP (Functional Programming), and FRP (Functional Reactive Programming). js on the backend, and MongoDB to store data. Cors: it provides a middleware to handle cross-origin resource sharing. Download the Node. Supongamos que tengo una capa en el backend que devuelve una cadena. by Moshe Vilner The best ways to connect to the server using Angular CLI Everybody who has used Angular CLI [https://cli. Luego, intentas usar el método header() de Express. Start by installing CORS & express-fileupload package and use nodemon to watch changes on the file. HTTP/2 with a self-signed certificate. In the portal, you can add tables and APIs, and edit code files for the Node. CORS hoàn toàn không có liên quan gì đến việc trao đổi trực tiếp giữa ứng dụng web mà một máy chủ web khác, ví dụ backend của ứng dụng đó truy cập đến tài nguyên trên một origin khác, nó cũng không cần đến CORS. Ogundipe Samuel Ayo (Express) for the script that handles the upload. Any idea where the problem might be is appreciated. Initiating. js written below). js application. $ cnpm install @types/cors. We also covered interaction with a server which we created using the React framework. JavaScript is sometimes called the lingua franca of the Internet, because it is cross-platform and supported by many devices. We often develop web apps against existing APIs, and during the development phase the app is running on our own servers. js with an optional backend data store. Building Rest-Enabled Back-End Services §Where are we now? §Introduction to Node. The files will be finally transferred to. This is supposed to enable the CORS support on the server for the request, and the browser expects to receive CORS headers in the response. js API Client / Single Page App (SPA) Tutorial Follow me on twitch! This post assumes you have some kind of API backed by some data that you want the user to be able to filter, either by category, by tag or other things of your liking. Emily Drevets. json and add these line into it:. Note that not all of the files created by this scaffolding tool will be used. This is a part of security, you cannot do that. How to create a React frontend and a Node/Express backend and connect them “two square blue LED lights” by israel palacio on Unsplash. Clone both repos into the mern-stack directory. One of the common difficulties backend development teams may face with when creating RESTful services is a Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS). Setting up the backend. Backend is required to send emails with Angular. Application - backend - Express architecture - frontend -Angular2 architecture So I'm running two projects, two commanders, one for frontent, second one for backend. Create server. Now, install the following dependencies. use(cors()) in our server file, we are reque. Planning your website CORS takes effort and a lot of consideration to prevent any cross site script attack from happening. In FrontEnd I have ran npm run build followed by npm…. In the tutorial, we show how to build an Angular application that uses the HttpClient to make get/post/put/delete requests with Observable apis to Node. When you create a Node. By hosting the game logic in the cloud as an API service, you preserve the game state so your user can keep playing their same game instance across different devices. js back end. js Application และ React App (ที่เป็น Single Page Application) ไว้ในเครื่องเดียวกัน โดยใช้ NGINX เป็น reverse proxy นะครับ โดยปกติ. I've tried using the cors package, and I've tried specifying CORS headers myself in an app. js on our frontend, in this tutorial. Native JSON support along with light frameworks like express. We also want to proxy requests to the backend API so that relative paths can be used to make API calls and CORS configuration can be avoided. We have this when doing requests in multiple/different backend APIs, all built in NodeJS & Express, exposed through a HAPRoxy Loadbalancer with HTTP2 enabled. Create a new folder outside vue project called exp-api. In fact, our analytics data shows Node. CORS adalah software yang mengizinkan sebuah request untuk mengirimkan method POST, GET, PUT, dan DELETE ke server. Discover how to create an online text RPG using React, Node. Utilized JavaScript, Express, JSON APIs, MVC, and CORS with PostgreSQL on the backend. js, GraphQL and Pusher. How to add CORS functionality to your NodeJS web app Published Dec 01, 2017 Known as CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing) it can be implemented on your NodeJS web application in the following two ways. Community downloads are submitted by IIS community members and do not benefit from Microsoft approval or support, and should be downloaded with this in mind. It provides a browser-based editor that makes it easy to wire together flows using the wide range of nodes in the palette that can be deployed to its runtime in a single-click. • Launching soon website with React, Redux, Node, Express, MongoDB and flexbox. Benefits of using CORS. In this mode, the server is still up and running, but only administrators will have access to it, whereas normal public requests will be turned away until. js as a back-end. It’s very easy to simply install the cors middleware to handle all the CORS stuff while using Node. npm install --save express body-parser cors mongoose nodemon. ) This training is aimed at teaching you how to get started with full-stack development using the MEAN (Mongo Express Angular Node) stack. Medicor's Playground Me, playing around with the evolving Web Platform. mongod Mongod is the primary daemon process for the MongoDB system. npm init -y. Discover how to create an online text RPG using React, Node. If thats clear in can improve my NodeJS backend (I'm not using a. js with Express. It is an open source framework developed and maintained by the Node. Services, on the other hand, tend to be transparent wrappers around clients that introduce additional behaviors. Just fill in the details asked by npm or ignore them (suit yourself). They can also be the source of our headaches. js module that simplifies the creation of a node server. js backend API Endpoint. Express with angular cli in 5 minutes. js package for providing an Express middleware that can be used to enable CORS with various options. Cors is a Node. dotnet_framework_version - The version of the. Building Rest-Enabled Back-End Services §Where are we now? §Introduction to Node. Examples of how sparse fieldsets work. After which it on-line a large number of things it’s possible receive. Just as for the front-end site, In Visual Studio 2017, you can choose to create a new Project, and select the 'Web' category. It does with IE. js with MySQL as database. I can't seem to figure out why it works for all my other routes but won't load the styles for one particular route - the route uses params, could this be an issue?. Emily Drevets. My AngularJS demo app has a new backend implementation using node. , a customer or inventory database) and the frontend web application may be a business system interacting directly with customers or employees. I have come across CORS issues multiple times and can usually fix it but I want to really understand by seeing this from a MEAN stack paradigm. http2 is enabled but the server is unable to serve over HTTP/2, the server defaults to HTTPS. Azure Mobile Apps - Node SDK Basic Usage. Express with angular cli in 5 minutes. If you’re hosted somewhere else, skip to the NGINX config portion to see how simple it is to avoid CORS. There are two methods from express-fileupload which allows to get the file name with req. Specifically, this will allow the web browser to access our backend from a different origin URL. Our team is certified and experienced with industry standards in communication and project management. This is necessary since the api. express-fileupload - Simple Express middleware for uploading files. js concepts like modules, express routing, templating and middleware. OK, I Understand. Nearly month ago, the new version of TypeScript (2. LoopBack stood high amongst all other frameworks over time. The cors library enables CORS support in Express We create the tsconfig. Initiating Server. js §Node Package Manager (NPM) §REST APIs with Express §MongoDB. CORS adalah versi pengembangan dari software sebelumnya bernama JSONP yang hanya support method GET. What is the Use Of CORS in express. As you can see, not having a security policy can be risky, but a security policy like same-origin is a bit too restrictive. js (the most popular web framework for Node developers). My webapp sits on a node express server, in front of which there's an nginx proxy server. It is also a modern backend technology and popular among new developers. GraphQL Client will emit requests to the "/graphql" route. Instead, it prevents the application from seeing the response. This is not based on MEAN. io/] knows that it is a powerful tool which can take a front-end development job to a completely different level. I am trying to practice making a get request with vanilla javascript to express server, but I am stuck in receiving the request in express js (my terminal does not print anything in my get request call). Proxy server that forwards the request of your app to the UI5 server and the other to your backend server; A UI5 CLI Server Proxy extension: The new tool allows you to extend the server middleware which made it possible intercept the requests from the client and redirect the OData requests to your backend. js written below). I'm prefixing my service paths with their Micro Frontend's name, in order to separate them and prevent confusion. mongod Mongod is the primary daemon process for the MongoDB system. Much of application development, including web applications, has to do with CRUD - creation, reading, updating and deletion of data. NET Core, how we’re going to release it, how it relates to the. Merchants can use it to automate back-office and administrative functions, including automatically fulfilling orders and providing customers with order status. eslintignore. The Azure Mobile Apps Node. by João Henrique. In development, we use a setup like this to serve static files through the Node server as well as to proxy requests to our backend API to avoid the need for CORS:. js & Express. js ( Frontend ) src/module/list. My backend for this is a tomcat server. The Back-End API. This post ended up to be mostly about killing the proverbial two birds, using it to serve your single page app and also getting rid of CORS. In our platform, backend services use OpenAPI (aka Swagger) to publish their HTTP endpoints, allowing us to generate client code. In my opinion, this is a superior way to keep cloud functions secure by user, but may not be practical in all cases. Allowing CORS requires some headers be added to the backend http responses. This is also known as Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS). This script is the one where all of our code goes in. Prerequisites. js, mongoDB credentials as I can't give you mine. Axios: it is a Promise-based HTTP client used to communicate with the Node server. Run command to create backend folder in Angular app’s root directory:. Express is a framework for building web applications on top of Node. by Moshe Vilner The best ways to connect to the server using Angular CLI Everybody who has used Angular CLI [https://cli. mkdir server cd server touch server. js using Vue CLI. Browsers will also make extra OPTIONS requests to check what HTTP headers and methods are allowed by the server. cors: This is a library that you will use to configure Express to add headers stating that your API accepts requests coming from other origins. cors provide a middleware function for Express applications to enable various Cross-Origin Resource Sharing options. , a customer or inventory database) and the frontend web application may be a business system interacting directly with customers or employees. You scaffold the application using Nuxt. If you don't have access to the backend, you can also force the browser to ignore CORS. Also, it is necessary to use the approach provided in the How to enable CORS in ASP. For that we need to set the correct headers in the response, which allow a browser to make use of the data from any domain. Before you begin, head over to https. Almost 80% of our user stories get covered with the 20% of generated code. part I - prepare the development environment with Vagrant and Ansible. What are the cons and the pro for handling CORS in infrastructure or application ? I mean is it better to setup CORS on my nginx/apache/tomcat ? or to handle it by coding in my application ? I have three API REST running with their own language (java spring, express and php) behind a nginx reverse proxy. Any idea where the problem might be is appreciated. We are ready to integrate into your project quickly and smoothly. Benefits of using CORS. You then altered a broken Node + Express application so that it accepted cross-origin requests, and could successfully make API calls to a backend running on a different origin. applyMiddleware: It is here that you pass to the Apollo Server the express application, as well as the other important part, turn off the default cors options. cd backend npm install --save cors npm install --save express-fileupload npm install -g nodemon nodemon app. The most complete access management platform for your workforce and customers, securing all your critical resources from cloud to ground. How to add CORS functionality to your NodeJS web app Published Dec 01, 2017 Known as CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing) it can be implemented on your NodeJS web application in the following two ways. It does with IE. Azure Mobile Apps - Node SDK Basic Usage. js using the node package manager (npm). Hi There, This is possible by importing the hypertext transfer protocol modules to your web or Express app. Our auth server would be a simple Express app with a single endpoint for logging the user in. Using CORS, a server can explicitly allow some cross-origin requests while rejecting others. Recently I had to do this and had the opportunity to use a great node library “alexa-verifier-middleware”. My AngularJS demo app has a new backend implementation using node. We have this when doing requests in multiple/different backend APIs, all built in NodeJS & Express, exposed through a HAPRoxy Loadbalancer with HTTP2 enabled. In this article you learned about CORS, what the different headers mean and the differences between simple and preflight requests. a chingu voyage 9 project, built and completed with another developer in dallas. Image Abstraction API. To upload the file on the server, we need to set up a separate backend. js app makes the backend for a React. Once we are done with this create a file named index. I hardcoded the array of users in the example to keep it focused on basic HTTP authentication, in a production application it is recommended to store user records in a database with hashed passwords. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. from problems that in fact had nothing to do with CORS--the backend is. NET Core as backend and Angular for front end. On the back-end side, you create an API using Node. CORS is a node. Much of application development, including web applications, has to do with CRUD - creation, reading, updating and deletion of data. If you don’t want to rely on a 3rd party, you can also set up CORS Anywhere on your machine using npm module cors-anywhere. Browsers will also make extra OPTIONS requests to check what HTTP headers and methods are allowed by the server. published 4. Then I try to add CORS headers to my backend, but it doesn't allow setting cookies, so my sessions get messed up. Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository's web address. What is CORS? CORS = Cross Origin Resource Sharing When developing an Ionic app, do you ever get the error: No 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' header is present on the requested resource It is caused by an Ajax call (XMLHttpRequest) to another site when you run your app in the browser by the command ionic serve or ionic run. It won't occur when. Express is a minimal and flexible Node. Simple Request. Cors: it provides a middleware to handle cross-origin resource sharing. So moving on to the exercise, we will install the CORS npm module and then configure it on various routes within our extra server. Part 2: Ionic Image Upload and Management with Node. Devereaux Smith was diagnosed with breast cancer at age 39 during a routine visit with her doctor. Install express, multer, and cors. Posted on January 21, 2016 Author Paul Leasure 2 Comments on CORS; How To Set HTTP Response Header on IIS Windows Server 2012 R2 to Access-Control-Allow-Origin When attempting to make an AJAX call are you getting the following error?. This script is the one where all of our code goes in. NodeJS is a back-end technology that allows a front-end focused programming language (JavaScript) to effectively and efficiently run on the back-end. 2 After building a few front end tutorials and examples on user authentication with Angular and React, I thought I'd put together a simple custom backend api that can be easily 'plugged in' to some of the front end examples, or be easily hooked up with your own custom client application. It provides easy collaboration and data management with secured API-keys for web queries. It is also a modern backend technology and popular among new developers. To set up a proxy on your angular app, create a new file proxy. js §Node Package Manager (NPM) §REST APIs with Express §MongoDB. If your web page makes an HTTP request to a different domain than you're currently on, it needs to be CORS-friendly. However, you may apply lots of the tips mentioned in this video to using WebStorm for Node. Last night I was working on updating my ASP. js de backend (8080), ng serve para ‘frontend’ (4200). Start by navigating to the root of your project in the terminal and run the following commands. RunKit notebooks are interactive javascript playgrounds connected to a complete node environment right in your browser. By default, our backend server will run on localhost:3000. In this article we'll build an Express proxy that will request stock data from the IEX API on our behalf, and will emit the right CORS headers so that our. js with MySQL as database. Hi There, This is possible by importing the hypertext transfer protocol modules to your web or Express app. js If you don't have a web server already, or don't want to mess with CORS, there is another way to get this working: spin up a Node. I have already shared tutorials to authenticate user using MySQL with express, that was simple authentication process using session, but now days front-end and back-end using different application, so we have two layer one front-end and second for back-end, both application are communication using restful service, so main question is how to. In Sandrino's post, a simple express. 本以为要用到react-router实际上没有,那它是什么情况下使用的?. You can leave everything as it is during the creation. CORS adalah software yang mengizinkan sebuah request untuk mengirimkan method POST, GET, PUT, dan DELETE ke server. At the end of this tutorial, you'll see a fully working demo written in AngularJS and NodeJS. js server-side applications. js is a Node. js, flexbox-grid with npm packages like body-parser, jwtwebtoken, validator, express and many more. In this tutorial, you will learn how to build a scalable REST API using the Node. This app is using flexbox layout without media queries (works somewhat). By We will be talking more about express shortly, and the cors package provides a simple way to handle. If thats clear in can improve my NodeJS backend (I'm not using a. js (Backend) Route src/routes/EmployeeRoute. js project template. stringify. This is the choice to go in a classic app. Here is a 'minimal' setup for a node. Atlassian-Connect-Express (ACE) is one of the HipChat libraries making building an add-on relatively simple, as it generates most of the plumbing for you. Remember our backend is simply receiving the token from the front end and sending it to stripe to complete the payment. express: This is Express itself. Enabling CORS in a server you control. Last night I was working on updating my ASP. CORS is a node. Follow me (@troygoode) on Twitter! Installation. Then I try playing with domain/subdomain settings in my /etc/hosts file to avoid CORS, that doesn't work out. AWS provides a set of fully managed services that you can use to build and run serverless applications. GraphQL Client will emit requests to the "/graphql" route. Setting up CORS with pre-flight request handling for development use in Node + Express Monday, 23 May, 2016 at 23:20 “Cross-Origin Resource Sharing” (CORS)-related errors are a common occurrence while developing a site with a separate frontend and API backend. The back-end for this app is a simple Express-based API that exposes the following endpoints: GET /api/food Returns an array of all existing Food objects in JSON format. Here is a sample: Note: two requests with the same host but not the same port aren’t considered to be on the same domain. Js to develop this api-only backend POC and here the steps to set it up properly considering the final goal: Create a new Github repository, check it out on your local computer, open that folder with your CLI; Run npm init to set up a package. JS + Express. node server. The Back-End API. Then, run npm i -S express http-errors mongoose superagent body-parser cors dotenv. js, MongoDB, Express. com tried to make a request to our back-end, the browser would not allow it. Express Gateway. Community downloads are submitted by IIS community members and do not benefit from Microsoft approval or support, and should be downloaded with this in mind. Building a REST-Backend for Angular with Node. If you want to follow along, you’ll need a Glitch account. APIs are the threads that let you stitch together a rich web experience. create a user account; while reading your target language, input words you don't know into the add word page, and then see the word list, ordered by how many times you saw each word on the wordlist page. Create a backend and a frontend repo on github or using the command line. We’ll use node to create endpoints, and set up a database in JSON format. In this tutorial, we will be using Node & Express js to create server locally along with multer, express js, body-parser, and dotenv libraries. After all, your data has to be served from somewhere But don't worry, setting up a server is easier than you might think. There are two methods from express-fileupload which allows to get the file name with req. As said the first step now is to create our backend. Before getting too involved, there is something to note first. Could you maybe provide some structure the controller sends back with the Load and/or FileUpload functions. js with MySQL as database. "At Humans of Code, we always wanted a reliable node based backend that helps us with very rapid prototyping and has a way forward to production release at scale. You can set the CORS configuration for a bucket using the gsutil command-line tool, the XML API, or the JSON API. Remember our backend is simply receiving the token from the front end and sending it to stripe to complete the payment. Building RESTful APIs using Node JS, Express JS, and MS SQL Server REST (Representational State Transfer) is web standards based architecture and uses HTTP Protocol. - Exposed to TypeScript, JSON, MongoDB, and Mongoose. js framework and connect MongoDB with the node. Combining the Grails Vue profile client and server projects Nov 05, 2018 - Grails + Vue. js and Express Template is as easy as making tea or coffee?? Seriously!!! So, in this tutorial, we will see how to create a basic RESTful API using node. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. cors CORS is a node. Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) is a mechanism that uses additional HTTP headers to tell browsers to give a web application running at one origin, access to selected resources from a different origin. Install NPM modules: npm install mongoose express cors body-parser uuid multer. This app is using flexbox layout without media queries (works somewhat). express-fileupload - Simple Express middleware for uploading files. Devereaux Smith was diagnosed with breast cancer at age 39 during a routine visit with her doctor. Currently, we have two applications, Angular 2 application and Node. When integrating this boilerplate with an existing backend, a common need is to access the backend API when using the dev server. Now I want to show how to achieve the same in IIS Express. Messages can get sent by a client to the backend, or the other way around. I was one of the developers of the "building central" domain service team and my job was to provide the backend as RESTful API and a GraphQL middleware. Most of the time you only need to enable some middleware to enable it on the server side. Unless you really know what your are doing, never enable CORS to the whole website, this is a serious security flaw. js, express. In this tutorial, we will be using Node & Express js to create server locally along with multer, express js, body-parser, and dotenv libraries. To enable the server to respond with the appropriate cors related headers to the request coming in from the client's site. Move faster, do more, and save money with IaaS + PaaS. I've tried using the cors package, and I've tried specifying CORS headers myself in an app. Unfortunately, these are often paired with pages that recommend very insecure defaults like this one in express which would make your application vulnerable if copied. CORS introduces a standard mechanism that can be used by all browsers for implementing cross-domain requests. ReactiveBase is a container component that wraps all the ReactiveSearch components together. Before you begin, head over to https. GET /api/books Returns an array of all existing Book objects in JSON format. My AngularJS demo app has a new backend implementation using node. Install NPM modules: npm install mongoose express cors body-parser uuid multer. CORS for middleware. js package for providing a Connect/Express middleware that can be used to enable CORS with various options. js file in backend folder to look as the following:. npm install. js module that provides. I have a node module with CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing) enabled, now my question is how can I move the CORS. graphiql (Graphical) will become one of our best friends. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: